About Andy Zink



(415) 405-2761




BiologyCollege of Science and Engineering


Hensill Hall (HH)


Office Hours (Additional Info): 

Tues / Thurs 11-12



At SF State Since:





As a behavioral ecologist I am interested in evolutionary and ecological processes that generate the broad diversity of animal behavior. Our research focuses on the evolution of social behaviors such as parental care, brood parasitism and cooperative breeding. Most recently we have focused on the roles of mutualism and parasitism in social evolution. Our general approach is to develop mathematical models that are applicable to a broad range of animals and to test the predictions of these (and other) models using laboratory and field experiments.




Cowgill, M.*, A.G. Zink, W. Sparagon, T.A. Yap, H. Sulaeman*, M. Koo, V.T. Vredenburg. 2021. Social behavior, community composition, pathogen strain and host symbionts drive fungal disease dynamics in salamanders. Frontiers in Veterinary Science (in press).


Tihelka, E., J. Hafernik, B.V. Brown, C. Quock*, A.G. Zink, S. Croppi, C-Y. Cai, C-D. Zhu. 2021. Global invasion risk of Apocephalus borealis, a honey bee parasitoid. Apidologie (in press)


Ritchie, K.L.*, V.T. Vredenburg, S. Chaukulkar*, H.M. Butler*, A.G. Zink. 2021. Social group size influences rates of pathogen transmission in salamanders. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 75:136.


Sette, C.M.*, V.T. Vredenburg, and A.G. Zink. 2020. Differences in fungal disease dynamics in co-occuring terrestrial and aquatic amphibians. EcoHealth 17:302-314.


Greer, J.A.*, A. Swei, V.T. Vredenburg, A.G. Zink. 2020. Parental care alters the egg microbiome of maritime earwigs. Microbial Ecology 80:920-934. (cover article)


Zink, A.G. and J.M. Eadie. 2019. Evolution: when cooperators cheat. Nature 567:34-35.


Lyon, B.E. and A.G. Zink. 2018. Evolution: how not to detect a brood parasite. Current Biology 28:R1192-1194.


Chaukulkar, S.*, H. Sulaeman*, A.G. Zink, V.T. Vredenburg. 2018. Pathogen invasion and non-epizootic dynamics in Pacific newts in California over the last century. PLoS ONE 13(7):e0197710.


Bird, A.*, S. Prado-Irwin*, V.T. Vredenburg, A.G. Zink. 2018. Skin microbiomes of California terrestrial salamanders are influenced by habitat more than host phylogeny. Frontiers in Microbiology 9:442.


Prado-Irwin, S.*, A. Bird*, A.G. Zink, V.T. Vredenburg. 2017. Intraspecific variation in the skin-associated microbiome of a terrestrial salamander.  Microbial Ecology 74:745-756. (cover article)


Barker, J., J. Bronstein, M. Friesen, E. Jones, H.K. Reeve, A.G. Zink, M. Frederickson. 2017. Synthesizing perspectives on the evolution of cooperation within and between species. Evolution 71:814-825.


Morales, M., A.G. Zink. 2017. Mechanisms of aggregation in an ant-tended treehopper: attraction to mutualists is balanced by consepcific competition. PLoS ONE 12(7):e0181429.


Zink, A.G. and B.E. Lyon. 2016. Evolution of conspecific brood parastisim versus cooperative breeding as alternative reproductive tactics. American Naturalist 187:35-47.


Sette, C.M.*, V.T. Vredenburg, and A.G. Zink. 2015. Reconstructing historical and contemporary disease dynamics: a case study using the California slender salamander. Biological Conservation 192:20-29.


Zink, A.G. 2015. Kin selection and the evolution of mutualisms between species. Ethology 121:823-830.


Zink, A.G. and Z-H He. 2015. Botanical brilliance: are plants decision-makers or elaborate fakers? Science 347:724-725.


Munoz, N.E.* and A.G. Zink. 2012. Asymmetric forceps increase fighting success among males of similar size in the maritime earwig. Ethology 118:943-954. (cover article)


Miller, J.S.* and A.G. Zink. 2012. Parental care trade-offs and the role of filial cannibalism in the maritime earwig, Anisolabis maritima. Animal Behaviour 83:1387-1394.


Miller, J.S.*, L. Rudolph**, and A.G. Zink. 2011. Maternal nest defense reduces egg cannibalism by conspecific females in the maritime earwig Anisolabis maritima. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65:1873-1879.


Abbot, P. et al. (135 authors) and A.G. Zink. 2011. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality.  Nature 471:E1-4.


Buston, P. and A.G. Zink. 2009. Reproductive skew and the evolution of conflict resolution: a synthesis of transactional and tug-of-war models. Behavioral Ecology 20:672-684. (cover article)


Zink, A.G. and J.A. Rosenheim. 2008. Stage-specific predation on Lygus hesperus affects its population stage-structure. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 126:61-66.


Loeb, M.L.G. and A.G. Zink. 2006. Fitness conflicts and the costs of sociality in communal egg layers: a theoretical model and empirical tests.  Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19:889-899.


Rosenheim, J.A., K. Steinmann, G. Langellotto, and A.G. Zink. 2006. Estimating the impact of Lygus hesperus on cotton: the insect, plant, and human observer as sources of variability.  Environmental Entomology 35:1141-1153.


Wheelwright, N.T., E.E. Dukeshire, J.B. Fontaine, S.H. Gutow, D.A. Moeller, J.C. Schuetz, T.M. Smith, S.L. Rodgers, and A.G. Zink. 2005. Pollinator limitation, autogamy, and minimal inbreeding depression in insect-pollinated plants on a boreal island. American Midland Naturalist 155:19-38.


Zink, A.G. 2005. Dynamics of brood desertion among communally breeding females in the treehopper Publilia concava. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 58:466-473.


Zink, A.G. and H.K. Reeve. 2005. Predicting the temporal dynamics of reproductive skew and group membership in communal breeders. Behavioral Ecology 16:880-888.


Zink, A.G. and J.A. Rosenheim. 2005. Stage-dependent feeding behavior by western tarnished plant bugs influences flower bud abscission in cotton plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 117:235-242.


Zink, A.G. and J.A. Rosenheim. 2004. State-dependent sampling bias in insects: implications for monitoring western tarnished plant bugs. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 113:117-123.


Zink, A.G. 2003. Quantifying the costs and benefits of parental care in female treehoppers. Behavioral Ecology 14:687-693


Zink, A.G. 2003. Intraspecific brood parasitism as a conditional reproductive tactic in the treehopper Publilia concava. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 54:406-415.


Zink, A.G. 2001. The optimal degree of parental care asymmetry among communal breeders. Animal Behaviour 61:439-446.


Zink, A.G. 2000. The evolution of intraspecific brood parasitism inbirds and insects. The American Naturalist 155:395-405.


Zink, A.G. and N.T. Wheelwright. 1997. Facultative self-pollination in island irises. American Midland Naturalist 137:72-78.